Thursday, March 19, 2020
Saying No in French Saying no in French is easy. The only problem is choosing from the many synonyms for no in French. Choose with care, because the differences between expressions are nuanced. Learn how to say the equivalents ofÃ no, not a chance, I dont think so, down with, and more. The Many Faces of Non in French non noThis is the basic, standard French word for no. Non, je naime pas skier. Ã No, I dont like to ski. ah non /Ã oh nonÃ Ã oh noAh non and oh non express disappointment, as in oh no! or darn it! Ah non ! Ãâ¡a ne marche pas ! Ã Oh no! It doesnt work! non Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã Ã no to...Non is followed by a noun to mean (say) no to or down with, especially in protests and demonstrations: Non au CPE ! Ã No to the First Job Contract! Other synonyms for nonÃ Ã absolument pasÃ Ã absolutely notÃ Ã Ã au contraireÃ on the contraryÃ Ã Ã aucun (problÃ ¨me, argent, etc.)Ã no (problem, money, etc)Ã Ã Ã bien sÃ »r que nonÃ Ã of course notÃ Ã Ã certainement pasÃ certainly notÃ Ã Ã des clous ! (familiar) no way!Ã Ã Ã du toutÃ not at all Expressions With Non Ã Ã Ã je crois que nonÃ Ã I dont think soÃ Ã Ã je ne dis pas nonÃ I wouldnt say noÃ Ã Ã mais nonÃ of course notÃ Ã Ã moi nonÃ not me, I dontÃ Ã Ã nest-ce pas ?Ã no? right? isnt it?Ã Ã Ã niet ! (familiar) no way!Ã Ã Ã non merci - no thank youÃ Ã Ã non et non !Ã absolutely not!Ã Ã Ã non plusÃ not (that) eitherÃ Ã Ã non que subjunctiveÃ not that Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã Ã Ã ... ou non ?Ã Ã¢â¬ ¦ (are/will/do you verb) or not?Ã Ã Ã pas de (problÃ ¨me, temps, pain, etc)Ã no (problem, time, bread, etc.)Ã Ã Ã pas du toutÃ not at allÃ Ã Ã pas question ! (familiar) no way! not a chance!Ã Ã Ã pas tout faitÃ not exactly, not quiteÃ Ã Ã que non !Ã absolutely not!
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Munich Olympic Massacre Aftermath The 2012 London Olympics marked the 40th anniversary of the tragic massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich games. An international calamity, the murder of the athletes by the Palestinian extremist Black September group on September 5, 1972, naturally spurred increased security measures at all subsequent Olympic games. The incident also forced the United States federal government, especially the State Department, to modernize the way it handles diplomatic security. Black September Attack At 4 a.m. September 5, eight Palestinian terrorists broke into to the Olympic village building where the Israeli team stayed. As they attempted to take the team hostage, a fight broke out. The terrorists killed two athletes, then took nine others hostage. A globally televised standoff ensued, with the terrorists demanding the release of more than 230 political prisoners in Israel and Germany. Germany insisted on handling the crisis. Germany had not hosted the Olympics since the 1936 Berlin games, in which Adolf Hitler tried to showcase German superiority in the pre-World War II years. West Germany saw the 1972 games as a chance to show the world it had lived down its Nazi past. The terrorist attack on Israeli Jews, of course, stabbed right at the heart of German history, since Nazis have perpetrated the extermination of some six million Jews during the Holocaust. (In fact, the infamous Dachau concentration camp sat about 10 miles from Munich.) German police, with little training in counter-terrorism, botched their rescue attempts. Terrorists learned via TV reporting of a German attempt to rush the Olympic village. An attempt to take them at a nearby airport where the terrorists believed they had passage out of the country, collapsed into a firefight. When it was over, all the athletes were dead. Changes in U.S. Readiness The Munich massacre prompted obvious changes in Olympic venue security. No longer would it be easy for intruders to hop two-meter fences and stroll unchallenged into athletes apartments. But the terror attack also changed security measures on a more subtle scale. The U.S. State Departments Bureau for Diplomatic Security reports that the Munich Olympics, along with other high-profile terrorist incidents in the late 1960s and early 1970s, caused the bureau (then known as the Office of Security, or SY) to reevaluate how it protects American diplomats, emissaries, and other representatives abroad. The bureau reports that Munich caused three major changes in how the U.S. handles diplomatic security. The massacre: Put diplomatic security in the forefront of U.S. foreign policy concerns; Changed SYs focus from background checks and evaluations to committing the personnel and technology necessary to combat terror; Put the State Department, White House, and Congress all in the diplomatic security policy-making process. Executive Measures U.S. President Richard Nixon also made executive changes to Americas terror preparedness. Foretelling the post-9/11 administrative reorganizations, Nixon ordered that U.S. intelligence agencies cooperate more effectively with each other and foreign agencies to share information regarding terrorists, and he created a new cabinet-level committee on terrorism, headed by Secretary of State William P. Rogers. In measures that seem quaint by today s standards, Rogers ordered that all foreign visitors to the U.S. carry visas, that visa applications be closely screened, and lists of suspicious persons code-named for secrecy be submitted to federal intelligence agencies. Congress authorized the president to cut U.S. air service to countries that aided hijackersÃ and made attacks against foreign diplomats on American soil a federal offense. Shortly after the Munich attack, Rogers addressed the United Nations and in another tactic that presaged 9/11 made terrorism global concern, not just that of a few nations.Ã The issue is not war...[or] the strivings of people to achieve self-determination and independence, Rogers said, it is whether the vulnerable lines of international communication...can continue, without disruption, to bring nations and peoples together.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Biochemical conditions and brain activity linked to crime - Essay Example This will be achieved by borrowing from various secondary sources and using examples appropriately. Crime refers to behaviors that violate taboos or social laws, thus a contextual fact (Bekerian & Levey, 2012). Because of the behavioral aspect of crime, the discussion on biochemical factors on criminology would focus on how biochemical factors influence criminology behaviors. Gaines and Miller document trait theories which postulate that Ã¢â¬Å"certain biological or psychological traits in individuals could incline them towards criminal behavior given a certain set of circumstancesÃ¢â¬ (2012, p. 45). Moreover, behavior is biological and would be represented in the brain, its biochemistry, structure, electrical activity and growth and decline. Biochemical Conditions and Crime In the evaluation of the relationship between biochemical conditions and crime, it would be critical to appreciate the postulate by Siegel (2013) that biochemical conditions, both acquired and genetic influenc e and control antisocial behavior. The trait theory postulates that biochemistry would influence oneÃ¢â¬â¢s criminal behavior. To put this into perspective, it would be important to appreciate the role that chemical messengers, referred to as hormones, play in influencing crime. Gaines and Miller (2012) give an example of testosterone in males whose elevated levels have been linked to aggression and thus increased criminality. This explains the high crime levels among men below age 28, doubling that of men between ages 31 and 60 due to the high testosterone levels at this age bracket. To further support this argument, it would be observed that boys exposed to steroids prenatally exhibit less aggression during their adolescence because of increased androgen levels. Biological contaminants and damaging chemicals could commence action even before birth if the mother takes diets lacking or having an excess of important nutrients. Siegel (2013) documents magnesium, sodium, potassium, a mino acids, calcium, peptides and monoamines as examples of minerals and chemicals whose presence in a diet results in abnormal sexual activity, mania and depression among other criminal tendencies. In the studies of diet and crime, sugars and carbohydrates have been particularly associated with antisocial behavior. According to Joyce (2013), this is the reason that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s diets would have sweet drinks replaced with fruit juices, molasses for sugar and table sugar with honey among others. Harmful chemicals could come into play through maternal smoking and alcohol abuse during gestation, with Siegel (2013) noting that this causes prenatal damage and subsequently leads to antisocial behavior in adolescence. Furthermore, such parents exhibit poor parenting practices hence resulting in conduct disorder among their children. Biosocial criminologists also argue out on the requirement for certain minimum levels of specific chemical and minerals to maintain normal brain growth an d functioning. Excess supply or undersupply of such minerals and chemicals as potassium and manganese could cause behavioral problems. This postulate has been supported by Joyce (2013) who observes that excessive amounts of cobalt and lead in the body or glucose deficiency in the bloodstream could adversely affect behavior and thus propagate crime. Brain Activity and Crime Studying brain activity points out at its relationship to crime. Neurophysiology
Sunday, February 2, 2020
To what extent does the Wal-Mart motivation mode inspire employees - Essay Example the development of business in the modern society requires that high consideration be given to motivation, which must be directed to the individuals that are responsible for the business decision making. In order to provide a clear framework for the scholars interested in this area of study, we will need to discuss the major forms of motivations as suggested by earlier researchers and outline clearly how they influence the growth of business. We will also see how they affect the employees in a diverse way. In addition, we will make suggestions of more forms of motivation that are not covered in this area of study. Apart from merely stating the major reasons for the exploration of these forms of motivation, we will identify the major weaknesses that have lead to the limitation of the power of prediction by the previously conducted researches on the same topic. This is rooted from the basic principle of continuity as should be exhibited by research. We therefore offer explicit outcomes for any future research adoption to clear the industry
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Developing Conceptual Framework in Accounting Accounting is playing an important role in nowadays society. It provides financial information to the user to make business decision. However, accountants have to follow accounting standards when they are providing the information. We may question what the principle of those standards is. Financial accounting theory was created as the principle in making standards, and conceptual framework for accounting built up. This essay is going to talk about whether developing a conceptual framework is an impossible possibility. In order to talk about this, I am going through some history of accounting, the definition and compare the conceptual framework under different standards. Accounting was created for thousands years ago. It dates back more than 7,000 years which is the time of ancient Babylon, Assyris and Sumeria. (Friedlob, G. Thomas Plewa, Franklin James, 1996) At that time, people did accounting for their personal need. With the change of the times, accounting no longer work for personal need. People need common standards for stakeholders to use when making decisions. Countries built up Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to set up rules for accountants to do accounting. When the business is becoming bigger, people find out that it is hard to understand other countries accounting report. People need international standards, so some international standards come out, Such as International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and Financial Reporting Standards (FRS). They are built by International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and Accounting Standards Board (ASB). When standard-setters were making standards, they considered about accounting theories. Geoffrey (2007) stated out that three main approaches which are used to create current accounting theories: The empirical inductive approach. This consists of distillation of theoretical principles from accounting practice. The deductive approach. This is the logical derivation of theoretical principles by deduction from assumptions. The new empiricism based on positivism, derived from the Chicago school of economics. This regards theories as worthwhile only if they are testable against empirical evidence. Ã ¯Ã ¼Ãâ 2007Ã ¯Ã ¼Ã¢â¬ ° Financial accounting theories were made in these three steps in present day. In 1976, FASB defined financial accounting theories as A coherent system of interrelated objectives and fundamentals that can lead to consistent standards. According to Elliot (2004), accounting is a mean which used to recording, classifying and summarizing financial activities which include cash flow, transactions and events. It means accounting is really important for users to analyse a company, such as shareholders, investors and employee. For example, investors want to invest a company. They need to know whether a company is good to invest, so they come to accountants and get the financial report. Without accounting standards, they may feel difficult in reading those reports. For this reason, accounting standards are necessary. To make accounting standards, the conceptual framework of accounting will be need. Carsberg (1984) described that conceptual framework of accounting is used to provide general support and improve the consistency of financial standards. It can reduce the cost of making the standards by helping the standard-setters on what information should be included and how the information should be displayed. It shows conceptual framework of accounting is necessary in making accounting standards. Conceptual framework set up the principle of accounting, so it improved the consistency of financial report and is beneficial to users in analysing the report. Furthermore, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦conceptual framework should be viewed as a kind of gyrocompass to help us in navigating our way through the self-interest and contending ideologies that always surrounded debate about regulation. (Edwards, 1981, p. 439) Based on this, Conceptual framework should work as guidance in making accounting standards. In 1975, The Corporate Report was the one of the reports which is about conceptual framework in the early stage. Our subject is, in essence, the fundamental aims of published financial reports and the means by which these aims can be achieved. (ASSC, 1975) The report shows the way how financial report should display the financial information. It provided structure for the following standards. In 2004, IASB/FASB started a project in developing a common conceptual framework for financial report. (Murphy, 2012, p.1) In 2006, it comes out some information about the framework. For example, it listed some user groups, such as entity investors, creditors, suppliers. In 2008, more information came out. In 2010, a recent version- Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting Chapter 1: The Objective of General Purpose Financial Reporting (IASB/FASB, 2010) was released. In this chapter, the efficiency and effectiveness of the entitys management and governing board in discharging their responsibilities to use the entitys resources is included. (IASB/FASB, 2010, para. OB4) In 2012, the IASB discussed how to restart the project on the conceptual framework. This time they believe the framework should focus on elements of financial statements, measurement, reporting entity, presentation and disclosure. (Peter Alan, 2012) The project of developing a common conceptual framework is so comp licated that IASB/FASB took lots of time to do it. Though it is still not complete, we know that it is becoming deeper from identify the users group to the elements of financial report. Statements of Standard Accounting Practice (SSAP) 2 (1971) gave out a conceptual framework of accounting before others. It was replaced by FRS 18 in year 2000. It showed that: Accounting policies assist in this process by providing a framework within which elements of financial statements, such as assets and liabilities, are recognized, measured and presented. They enhance the comparability of financial statements by helping to ensure that similar transactions are reflected in similar way.(ASB, 2000) It provided a way for how the financial standards should be defined and gives out a way for conceptual framework in how it should develop. From the recent standard in FRS, we see that the framework is completing. For example, FRS 30 is setting out the definition of Heritage Assets. A tangible asset with historical, artistic, scientific, technological, geophysical or environmental qualities that is held and maintained principally for its contribution to knowledge and culture. (ASB, 2009) From above, IASB and FASB which are from United States focus more on the methods on how to disclose the financial information. On the other hand, FRS which is used in United Kingdom put more time in building up the definition of building blocks of financial statements. The aspects they concern about are a part of the conceptual framework of accounting. To evaluate the statement, we need to look into the statement. Developing a conceptual framework is an impossible possibility We can go through the process of induction which is Observations-Laws/theories-Prediction. This is similar to the work of Geoffrey (2007) which I have mentioned. From observed IFRS and FRS, we may say that developing a conceptual framework is possible. It is the theory we get from the work have done. Then we come to prediction. We need to find out a fact that against our theory. If there are no such of fact, we may say that it is possible to build up a conceptual framework. We can also analyse it from the sources of knowledge. It includes perception, introspection, memory, intuition, testimony and so on. Through perception, the statement is not right. From above, we know that conceptual framework is made by IASB, FASB and other else. Although they are not perfect, they are rudiment and developing. When reading this statement with introspection, it cannot be an impossible job. Conceptual framework works as a guidance of accounting. It cannot be impossible to create guidance. In memory, since I learn about accounting standards, I consider the standards are made with invisible rules which I recently think it is the framework of accounting. From intuition, developing a conceptual framework may cost lots of time and difficult to complete, for it need to be agreed by different accounting facilities. Once it complete, it will benefit a lot in making accounting standards. Come to testimony, the people who agree with the statement may argue that some definitions of conceptual framework are still fuzzy, such as true and fair view. As I have said above, nowadays conceptual frameworks are rudiment. It is too early to assert that it is impossible to develop a conceptual framework. However, there are some evidences for the statement. Some parts of conceptual framework are based on fallacy. For example, Rayman (2007) has talked about IASB and FASB built their conceptual framework on the present value fallacy. In the IASB/FASB project, the income was showed: That definition of income is grounded in a theory prevalent in economics: that an entitys income can be objectively determined from the change in its wealth plus what it consumed during a period.(Hicks, 1946, pp. 178-179) (Bullen and Crook, 2005, p. 7; cf. Joint Working Group of Standard Setters, 2000, p. 233) This is similar to the work of Sterling (1970) which was provided as fallacy. There is general agreement on the definition of income among the various schools of thought: Income is the difference between wealth at two points in time plus consumption during the period. The problem centers around the method of determining the wealth or well-offness. (Sterling, 1970, p. 19) It looks like there are some mistakes in building the conceptual framework of accounting, but it is also one of the reasons for IASB/FASB to keep improving IFRS. Another evidence for the statement is True and Fair view. It does not have a clear rule or law for this. It works more like an invisible rule. When accountants making financial report, they should make those report bases on true and fair view. There is nothing specific when we look into the view. It depends on accountants culture and faith. Back to the statement I talked about, I think it is still too early to say that developing a conceptual framework is an impossible job. Though it used fallacy in the process of building the framework, it still in the middle of completing. We should give hope to it, for it is so important in making financial standards. In conclusion, the conceptual framework of accounting is vital. From the definition, we can see that the framework will help a lot in building financial standards which will benefit the users in making financial decision. Comparing different standards which are used in present day, we find out that they are still not perfect. At the meantime, there are some problems in the standards. Even though, it is still not good to conclude that it is impossible to come out a conceptual framework of accounting. I believe the conceptual framework of accounting will finally come out in the future.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Early formal education refers to the education that children obtain during early stages of their childhood. Early childhood is a crucial time period for the development of the mental functions of children. This development, including the emergence of the abilities and skills in areas such as language, motor skills, psychosocial cognitive, and learning, is now known to be greatly influenced by exogenous factors, including the nature of the educational environment to which the child is exposed during the first eight years of life. The benefits of early childhood education have long been disputed. For many years it was believed that children who receive early formal education have an advantage over those who start school at age five or six. Today, some educators challenge that view. They speculate that intellectual and emotional harm can result from putting very young children into structured learning situations. It is hard to deny the opponents opinion that children have always grown up to be intelligent and reliable young adultsÃ without the benefits of early childhood education. However, in my opinion, I feel like children who receive early formal education will have advantages over those who start school at age five or six because early formal education can provide a good foundation for real learning for young children, encourage the children to organize their thoughts, communicate and social with other people, and develop childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cognition and know the importance of friendship. First, providing a good start for real learning for young children in the future is one of the reasons that I think children should attend early formal education before first grade. Children can attend early formal education, such as preschool or kindergarten before they begin elementary schools. All human beings learn to speak a language that they hear.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Arguments of Christopher Browning versus Daniel John Goldhagen Regarding The German View of the Holocaust The arguments of Christopher Browning and Daniel John Goldhagen contrast greatly based on the underlining meaning of the Holocaust to ordinary Germans. Why did ordinary citizens participate in the process of mass murder? Christopher Browning examines the history of a battalion of the Order Police who participated in mass shootings and deportations. He debunks the idea that these ordinary men were simply coerced to kill but stops short of Goldhagens simplistic thesis. Browning uncovers the fact that Major Trapp offered at one time to excuse anyone from the task of killing who was not up to it. Despite this offer, most of theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Goldhagen argues that for centuries, nearly every German was possessed of a homicidal animus towards Jews and thus 80 to 90 percent of Germans would have relished in the occasion to eliminate Jews. (Goldhagen dissents from Christopher Brownings estimates that 10-20 percent of the German police battalions refused to kill Jews as stret ching the evidence ). It is one of Goldhagens central arguments that the police battalions were prototypical of the murderous German mind-set. Goldhagens true distinction from Browning is to argue that German anti- Semitism was not only a significant but rather it was the sufficient condition for perpetrating the extermination of the Jews. Goldhagen observes that if it was not for Hitlers moral authority, the vast majority of Germans never would have contemplated the genocide against the Jews. He also argues that by the time Hitler came to power, the model of Jews that was the basis of his anti-Semitism was shared by the vast majority of Germans. To rebuttal his claim I must ask that if anti-Semitism was true to not only the Germans but also the other European countries then why didnt a massive scaleShow MoreRelatedOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.1 63893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesSouthern Life Lisa M. Fine, The Story of Reo Joe: Work, Kin, and Community in Autotown, U.S.A. Van Gosse and Richard Moser, eds., The World the Sixties Made: Politics and Culture in Recent America Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., History and September 11th John McMillian and Paul Buhle, eds., The New Left Revisited David M. Scobey, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape Gerda Lerner, Fireweed: A Political Autobiography Allida M. Black, ed., Modern American Queer History Eric